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Saturday, October 22, 2005

Human development

 During the 1970s, education was seen as a human resorce for economic development. For example, Japan was able to become the world's economic power because of the high educational level after the war. In the 1990s, a new concept started to be recognized. This is the "Human Security". Before then, security was for states. But even if the state was secured, the human living in the states suffered oppression, starvation and so on. People started to think that human security was as important or more important than the state security. And in this new concept, education's role changed from supporting economic development, to development itself.

 In 1990, UNDP published the Human Development Report (HDR). The purpos of development aid changed from economic improvement to help many people live a life with respect of human dignity. To measure the degree of development, before we used only the GDP, but a new way was introduced. This is called the Human Development Index (HDI). The HDI indicates whether people lead a long and healthy life, are educated and knowledgeable and enjoy a decent standard of living. The HDI is a composite of three basic components of human development: longevity, knowledge and standard of living. Longevity is measured by life expectancy. Knowledge is measured by a combination of adult literacy and mean years of schooling .Standard of living is measured by purchasing power, based on real GDP per capita adjusted for the purchacing power parity (PPP).

 Besides the HDI, there are other index such as Gender-related Development Index (GDI)* which measures the same variables as the HDI except that it adjusts for gender inequalities in life expectancy, literacy and gross enrolment, and income. There is also an index to measure the poverty of that country called the Human Poverty Index (HPI). And this HPI is devided into 2 index measuring developing countries and industrialized countries differently.


(*GDI doesn't stand for God Damn Independent here.)

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